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During Key Stage 1 pupils develop their knowledge and understanding of mathematics through practical activity, exploration and discussion. They learn to count, read, write and order numbers to 100 and beyond. They develop a range of mental calculation skills and use these confidently in different settings. They learn about shape and space through practical activity which builds on their understanding of their immediate environment. They begin to grasp mathematical language, using it to talk about their methods and explain their reasoning when solving problems.


The mathematics programmes of study and the primary framework for mathematics are fully aligned. The framework provides a detailed basis for implementing the statutory requirements of the programme of study for Key Stage 1 in mathematics.


Building on the early learning goals

Pupils' prior experience of mathematics includes:

  • counting and using numbers to at least 10 in familiar contexts
  • recognising numerals 1 to 9
  • talking about and creating simple patterns
  • beginning to understand addition as combining two groups of objects and subtraction as 'taking away'
  • describing the shape and size of solid and flat shapes
  • using everyday words to describe position
  • using early mathematical ideas to solve practical problems.